Listening

Reading

Writing

Selective Listening

Search Reading

Test of Writing

Careful Listening

Careful Reading

BUOWL - Bogazici University Online Writing Lab

 

DİKKAT!

 

Boğaziçi Üniversitesi basılı eğitim malzemeleridir.  Her türlü hakkı mahfuzdur.

 

Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Rektörlüğü’nün yazılı onayı olmaksızın hiçbir şekilde ve hiçbir amaçla kullanılamaz, çoğaltılamaz, basılamaz, kısmen veya tamamen yayınlanamaz.  Bu basılı malzemeyi fotokopi, optik veya elektronik veya herhangi başka bir teknikle çoğaltanlar, içeriğini başka bir ortama aktararak eğitim aracı olarak veya bir başka amaçla kullanan ve/veya satanlar ve çoğaltma ve yayınlama alanında yardımcı veya ortak olanlar hakkında derhal yasal girişimde bulunulacaktır.

 

Bu yasal olmayan uygulamaları lütfen 0212 359 45 40 no’lu telefona belgeleyerek veya takibe almamızı sağlayacak şekilde bildiriniz.

 

 

AFTER EACH PART OF THE TEST YOU WILL FIND AN ANSWER KEY. THE LENGTH OF THE ANSWERS BELOW IS TYPICAL IN THE B.U. PROFICIENCY TEST.

 

IT IS ADVISED THAT YOU KEEP YOUR ANSWERS SHORT. ANY ADDITIONAL INFORMATION IN YOUR ANSWERS WILL BE TO YOUR DISADVANTAGE.

   

SELECTIVE LISTENING

 

 

Click to listen to the instructions

 

“Now you will hear a lecture.  While you are listening to the lecture, you must answer the questions. The questions are in the order the information is delivered in the lecture.  Write only short answers.  Complete sentences are not necessary. 

 

Before the lecture begins, you will have three minutes in which to study the questions. At the end of the lecture you will be given three minutes to go over what you have written.”

 

“Now, you have three minutes to look at the questions on the Selective Listening Question Sheet.”

 

CHAOS THEORY

 

You will hear a short talk about CHAOS THEORY.  While you are listening to the talk, you must answer the questions below.  The questions are in the order the information appears in the talk.  Write short answers.  Complete sentences are not necessary.  Before the talk begins, you will be give three minutes in which to study the questions.  Write only on the lines ( ________ ).  At the end of the talk you will be given three minutes to go over what you have written.  Make sure everything you write is spelled correctly.

 

The link to the lecture is at the end of the questions

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 Selective Listening : Chaos Theory (approx. 15 mins)

 

This part of the Listening Test is aimed at testing your ability to listen selectively to a lecture. Before the lecture begins, you will have 3 minutes in which to study the  questions. At the end of the lecture, you will be given another 3 minutes to go over what you have written. The questions are in the same order the information is delivered in the lecture. Write only short answers.  Complete sentences are not necessary. 

 

1. Prior to Chaos Theory, what was the only thing that statistics could show us about complex

    chaotic systems?

 

     _______________________________________________________________________.

 

2. What does the application of Chaos Theory mainly intend to show?

 

    _________________________________________________________________________

 

3. What particular characteristic tells us that a system is chaotic?

 

    _________________________________________________________________________

 

4.  Which examples of chaotic systems are given in the talk?  ( Write any TWO. )

 

a)      ______________________________________________________________________

 

b)      ______________________________________________________________________

 

5. At which point in his weather programme sequence did Lorenz start his second run?

 

     _______________________________________________________________________.

 

6. According to the lecture, to what degree of accuracy in measurement do scientists usually

    work?

 

    _________________________________________________________________________

 

7. What does the “Butterfly Effect” really tell us about a chaotic system?

 

     _________________________________________________________________________

 

8. In spite of current scientific knowledge, what do long-term weather forecasts still rely on?

 

     _________________________________________________________________________

 

9. In which unexpected field of study is Chaos Theory being used today?

 

     _________________________________________________________________________

 

Click to listen to the lecture

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Selective Listening – Chaos Theory

ANSWERS:

  1. probable outcomes

  2. hidden organizational patterns

  3. its sensitivity to initial conditions

  4. the solar system / the atmosphere /the motion of fluids /brain function

  5. in the middle

  6. 3 decimal places

  7. the difference between starting points

  8. previous observations

  9. investigation of population growth

 

 

 

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CAREFUL LISTENING

 

 

“For the second lecture you will have to take notes while you are listening.  Do not attempt to write everything down. Just note down the main points and examples. Do not look at the questions before the lecture is over. At the end of the lecture you will have 15 minutes to answer the questions using your notes.”

 

 

 

PERMACULTURE 

 

 

Click to listen to the lecture

 

Do NOT look at the questions before the lecture is over

 

 

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QUESTIONS

 

 

B. Careful Listening: Permaculture (approx. 30 mins)

     *Answer the questions using your notes.

     *You have 15 minutes to answer the questions.

 

1. What is the aim of permaculture designs?

           

    _____________________________________________________________________

 

2. What serves as a model for efficient designs?

 

    _____________________________________________________________________

 

3. What measures does permaculture offer to take care of the Earth? (Write one.)

 

    _____________________________________________________________________

 

4. In terms of the ethics of permaculture, what is the unfavourable consequence of fear

    and greed ?

           

    _____________________________________________________________________

 

5. What actions does permaculture suggest in order to ensure fair shares? (Write two.)

 

    a) ___________________________________________________________________

 

    b) ___________________________________________________________________

 

6. By what methods is the production of food achieved without disturbing the natural balance?

    (Write one.)

 

    _____________________________________________________________________

 

7. What are the outcomes of a sharing attitude in community life? (Write one.)

 

    _____________________________________________________________________

 

8. What technologies are used to recycle energy in permaculture systems? (Write two.)

 

      a) __________________________________________________________________

 

      b) __________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ANSWERS

 

 

 

Careful Listening - Permaculture

  1. to create sustainable living

  2. eco-systems

  3. maintaining bio-diversity / restoring damaged land

  4. needless accumulation of wealth

  5. leaving spaces for other species / leaving enough resources for the poor / limiting population growth

  6. growing native plants / establishing permanent systems of planting / obtaining food from perennial plants

  7. energy consumption is reduced / interaction with neighbors is increased

  8. solar power / wind power / greenhouses / waste treatment facilities

 

 

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SEARCH READING

 

 

Search Reading: Attitudes Toward Business (Text Booklet pages 1-4) (35 mins)

This part of the Reading Test is aimed at testing your ability to read quickly and selectively to find important information and ideas. First, locate the part of the text which provides the necessary information. Then, read carefully to answer each question. The questions are in the order the information appears in the text. Write your answers in the spaces provided. Give precise answers. You have 35 minutes to complete this part. At the end of 35 minutes, this Question and Answer Sheet will be collected.

 

1.  Which business activity contradicted the common beliefs in ancient agrarian societies?

 

     ________________________________________________________________________

 

2.  According to ancient Greek beliefs, material acquisitiveness might lead to

 

     ________________________________________________________________________.

 

3.  Which business activity did the Medieval Church especially disapprove of?

 

     ________________________________________________________________________

 

4.  In addition to money, what helped rich traders to reach the highest social positions in   

     colonial America ?

     ________________________________________________________________________

 

5.  What did the populists in the 19th century US suggest as solutions to farmers’ problems?

     (Write any one)

     ________________________________________________________________________

 

6.  What made it easier for progressives to make big changes?

 

     ________________________________________________________________________

 

7.  People developed negative attitudes toward business after the 1929 market crash, but they

     changed their attitudes during WW2 because they realized that industrial products

 

     were vital for _____________________________________________________________.

 

8.  What have ups and downs in economies led to in most countries in the 20th century?

     (Write any one)

     ________________________________________________________________________

 

9.  What weakened the influence of Marxism whenever it started to gain public support in the

     U.S.?

 

     ________________________________________________________________________


ATTITUDES TOWARD BUSINESS

The list of specific criticisms of corporations is virtually endless, but they are all based on the same idea, which is that people in business place profit before enduring values such as honesty, truth, justice, love, respect for nature and so forth. For example, two critics, Jacobson and Mazur (1995), argue that commercialism has eroded the meaning of Christmas, by turning “the day commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ into an unparalleled orgy of consumption.” In this instance, divinity is sacrificed for profit, and, to critics, the profit motive is less noble than contrasting humanitarian motives because it is seen as selfish. 

In addition to the critics of business, a large number of people in many countries throughout the world share similar ideas. People believe business cheats and harms consumers, exploits and dehumanizes workers, degrades nature and the environment, manipulates government and undermines public interest. For instance, opinion polls show that people may blame business for their economic ills and in 1994 only 26 percent of Americans expressed a great deal of confidence in big businesses.  At the root of these generic ideas are attitudes toward business that have developed since ancient civilizations.

HISTORICAL FACTORS UNDERLYING THE ATTITUDES TOWARD BUSINESS

The Ancient Worlds

Throughout recorded history, people in most cultures have questioned the activities of merchants and businesses. The earliest societies, such as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Inca and Aztec societies, old China, and the ancient Hindu kingdoms of Southeast Asia, were agrarian societies. An agrarian society is a pre-industrial society in which economic activity, government, and culture are based on traditions arising from agriculture. Upper social classes were comprised of wealthy landowners. No industry or mass-consumer markets existed, so business practice was only a tiny part of these ancient economies. In this setting, the sharp trading practices of merchants were often viewed as clashing with the traditional, more altruistic values of family and clan relations among farmers. Merchants were typically given lower class status than government officials, farmers, soldiers, artisans, and teachers.

Both Greece and Rome were also based on subsistence agriculture, and economic activity on the part of merchants, bankers, and manufacturers was limited. The largest factory in Athens, for example, employed 120 workers. Commercial activity was greater in Rome, but it was still fundamentally an agrarian society. Merchants in both societies achieved middle-class status below an upper class of landed aristocrats. However, because industrial activity was so limited in Greek civilization, no accurate, coherent economic doctrines were developed to explain or justify commercial activity. In this environment, some great philosophers encoded the idea that wealth, particularly wealth from commercial activity, was caused by greed—an idea that has left a lasting legacy of cynicism about business activity in Western society.

Greed was regarded as particularly suspect in the limited economy of ancient Greece because of the popular idea that the amount of wealth was fixed. If so, an individual seeking to increase wealth could only do it as long as the share of others was diminished. This was responsible for the idea that material acquisitiveness is not a noble motive in the same way as, say, desire for knowledge. The latter does not create social injustice; the former may.

These views were reflected first in Greek, and later in Roman culture. In the utopian society described in “The Republic”, for example, Plato prohibited the possession of private property by its rulers for fear of corruption and the rise of tyrants; they were forbidden even to touch gold or silver. In his “Politics”, Aristotle argued that, as opposed to simply acquiring necessary commodities, trading commodities for the purpose of monetary gain is a “perverted or unsound” activity. He also described the lending of money for interest as a “hateful” activity.

Later, Roman law would forbid the senatorial class to make business investments (although the law would be widely disobeyed by people who found a clever way to bypass it). Likewise, the Stoic philosophers of Rome taught that, rather than owning capital or property, the truly affluent person possessed inner peace. These thinkers looked down on merchants of their day as materialists who, in pursuit of wealth, wasted their lives. Needless to say, this did not deter the merchants from accumulating fortunes.

Medieval Worlds

During the Middle Ages, the prevailing theological doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church were intolerant of most commercial activities, such as profit making, market pricing and lending money for interest. Christianity created a doctrine opposed to the values of the wealthy ruling class, which had debilitated Rome in its waning years. It rejected a focus on wealth accumulation and sought special status for the poor. The Church claimed that commerce diverted merchants from religion. Merchants were advised to charge a fair price for their products, a price that was just adequate to maintain them in the social status they had inherited. By the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, however, the money supply, as well as economic activity, had expanded greatly. “Commercial activity,” notes historian Will Durant, “proved stronger than fear of prison or hell.”  Like the ancient philosophical doctrines, the doctrines of The Medieval Church could not stop merchants from accumulating wealth either. Even some church scholars such as St. Thomas Aquinas began to question the dogma of market pricing and profit making.  Nonetheless, the lending of money for interest, the business practice that The Roman Church had particularly condemned, was never embraced by The Church.

The Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution

As industrial activity accelerated during the Renaissance, new economic theories arose to justify business activities that had previously been condemned. Aristotle’s belief that profits and wealth were corrupting was contradicted by Adam Smith’s theory that free markets harnessed greed for the public good. The Church’s insistence on the concept of a fair price was contradicted by Smith’s theory that competitive markets protected consumers from unfair prices. And the ancient belief that only a fixed amount of wealth existed in a society was countered by clear experience with thriving economies. Although criticism of business has always existed, it deepened and changed its nature after the industrial revolution. Fundamental societal change soon became a great source for critics of commerce even though the antiquarian values of Greek and Roman thinkers kept shining through in the charges of critics.

INDUSTRIAL GROWTH AND ATTITUDES TOWARD BUSINESS IN THE U.S.

The Colonial Period

Unlike in most other countries, much higher levels of public confidence in business existed during the early years of the United States than exist now. Historians record generally positive feelings toward entrepreneurs, companies and business system until the growth of giant trusts in the latter half of the nineteenth century.  This might be because the commercial spirit was dominant in most walks of life in colonial America although it manifested itself in different ways. For example, the farmer was not a peasant bound to the soil with a pattern of life dictated by custom.  Although his way of life was different from that of the retail merchant in the town, they both engaged in buying and selling. As the farmers accumulated wealth, they built and ran grain mills and in other ways employed their capital exactly like merchants. In contrast to those in Europe, merchants of great wealth rose to top status in colonial society in part because of the absence of hereditary aristocracy.

The 19th Century

Despite this short historical background of positive attitudes toward trade and business in the US, explosive industrial growth created some severe social problems even in this predominantly rural, agrarian society of small, local businesses. Cities grew as farmers left the land and immigrants swelled slum populations.  Most cities were run by corrupt political machines which failed to alleviate difficult conditions. Simultaneously, in many industries, companies merged into huge national monopolies, and these two changes became the basis for two movements critical of big business in the US.

The Populist Movement:  The first was the populist movement, a farmers’ protest movement that began in the 1870s and ended in 1896. Soon after the Civil War, farmers began to suffer from a persistent drop in crop prices, which was caused mainly by overproduction because of the efficiencies of new farming machinery, and by competition from foreign farmers because of new transportation methods. At the time, farmers did not understand these factors and blamed their distress on railroad companies because they were the largest and most visibly corrupt businesses of the day, frequently overcharging farmers when carrying crops. To solve agrarian ills, the populists advocated government ownership of railroads as well as controls over corporate influence on politics. Nevertheless, the movement did not receive much public support, and historian Louis Galambos believes that, despite the populist critique, there existed a great reservoir of respect for and confidence in business until the late 1880s.

The Progressive Movement:  The second movement against business was the progressive movement, a broader reform movement incorporating the farmers as well as the urban middle class, and lasting from about 1900 until the end of World War I in 1918. During this period, progressives broke up trusts and monopolies, made it illegal for corporations to contribute to federal campaigns, imposed federal regulation on consumer products, restricted child labor, and regulated safety conditions in factories. Unlike the populists, progressives had broad popular support, which enabled them to be very effective in these reform efforts. In a way, progressivism refined the antibusiness lexicon of the populists and carried their legacy into the twentieth century.

The 20th Century

After the triumph of progressive reforms in the U.S., there was a period of high public confidence in big business during the prosperous, expansive 1920s.  This rosy era ended abruptly with the stock market crash in 1929, and business once again came under sustained attack. During the 1920s, the idea that business knew how to achieve continuing prosperity had been advanced and widely accepted. The depression of the 1930s disproved this view and, in addition, brought to light much ineptness, criminal negligence, and outright fraud on the part of prominent business executives. Criticism of business was intensified by the apathetic and harsh reaction of the conservative business community, which believed that state institutions should not interfere to relieve the human misery the depression had caused. During World War II, support for business rebounded. Industry wrapped itself in patriotism, and its high manufacturing output proved essential to the victory.  In a postwar poll, only 10 percent of the population believed that, where “big business activity” was concerned, “the bad effects outweighed the good.”

However, strong public support for business in the U.S. collapsed once again in the mid-1960s, which was a time of unrest. Social movements attacked basic institutions for their failure to solve major problems, and people lost confidence in government, labor, the military, churches, higher education, medicine, the press, and of course, business once again.   For example, in 1968, 70 percent of the American public agreed that business tried to strike a fair balance between profits and public interest; in 1970, the percentage fell to 33, and in 1976, the percentage plummeted to only 15 percent. Opinion polls still show that people rate economic problems among the most important problems. All around our globe, economic fluctuation has been shown to spark off fear of power. Along with this, widespread belief in business conspiracy has arisen as a result of these recurrences of depression.

Political Ideologies  In addition to economic factors, some political ideologies have also contributed to the negative attitudes toward business among the public in most countries.  For example, Marxists, who base their critique on the philosophical and economic theories of Karl Marx, have been persistent antagonists of business. In many countries, they have attacked institutional structures and demanded their replacement with a collectivist state. Even in the U.S., where capitalism originated and is strongly rooted, they have reached high water marks in three eras when grave social problems called into question the legitimacy of the business system.  The first was during the progressive era mentioned above, the second was in the depression era of 1930s, and the last was during the 1960s and 1970s, when social movements challenged the establishment, including business. In each case, however, moderate reform defeated the socialist agenda.  Marxist thinkers have been influential, but, today, their influence is fading all around the world. Nevertheless, dismissing the Marxist movement now might be premature.

Activist reformers are another group of people who question the legitimacy of the business system.  They, however, accept the basic legitimacy of the business system.  What they suggest is a reform of the flaws in the system.  To be able to do so, they work with governments as well as using a wide range of tactics including negotiation, letter writing, speeches, lobbying legislatures and regulatory institutions and editorial writing. 

ANSWERS

  1. the sharp trading practices of merchants

  2. social injustice

  3. lending of money for interests

  4. the absence of hereditary aristocracy

  5. government ownership of railroads / controls over corporate influence on politics

  6. broad popular support

  7. allied victory

  8. fear of power / widespread belief in business conspiracy

  9. moderate reform

 

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CAREFUL READING

 

 

 

The questions in this part of the test are based on the passage Exploratory Behaviour.  They are designed to test your detailed reading of English.  Answer the questions very carefully.  We expect precise answers.  For example, if the correct answer is “the change in behavior” no marks will be given for the answer “the change” or for the answer “behavior”. You have 40 minutes to complete this part.

 

 

 

QUESTIONS

 

 Careful Reading: Exploratory Behavior (Text Booklet pages 5-8) (40 mins.)

 

 

A. This part of the Reading Test is aimed at testing your ability to read a text carefully.

     The questions are in the order the information appears in the text. Read the text and

     answer the following questions in the spaces provided. Give precise answers.

 

 

1. Lately, Annie has started to wear the blue necklace that she hasn’t used for a while.

   

    What finding about satiation does the above example support?

 

      ________________________________________________________________________

 

 2. Consider the stimuli below in terms of complexity. According to Berlyne, which   

     person is  likely to experience very high arousal and so end contact with the stimulus?  

     Write a, b, or c.  

 

person--------------------------------------------------------stimulus

   

     a. an art student                                                                   a painting by Picasso

     b. a farmer                                                                           seeds turning into a plant

     c. a 3-year-old child                                                            a car engine

   

      ________________________________________________________________________

 

3. What did Franken and Strain use in their experiment that led to a decreased exploratory

     tendency in the rats?

 

     _________________________________________________________________________

 

4. Based on Berlyne’s theory, Smith and Dorfman’s study showed that when there weren’t

   

    repeated exposures, a highly complex stimulus received little interest, because the subjects

   

    lacked ___________________________________________________________________.

 

5. In Deci’s experiment, what caused the subjects to lose interest in the game during the free

    sessions?

 

    _________________________________________________________________________

 

 

6. Those people who are unlikely to become drug addicts have _________________________

 

    monoamine oxidase levels, which leads to a _____________________ degree of activation

 

    of the reward center of the brain.

 

 

B. What does each of the following refer to? Be precise.

 

7.  it (parag.2)

 

     _________________________________________________________________________

 

8. it (parag.8)

 

     _________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 


 

EXPLORATORY BEHAVIOUR

 

1          Animals and humans like to explore their environment and seek out new and varied stimulation. Studies which have been carried out since the 1950s suggest that this kind of behaviour is activated by a curiosity drive that motivates organisms to investigate novel things in their environment. One group of such studies involved the phenomenon called ‘alternation behaviour.’ If you place a rat in a T-maze and allow it to select one of the two arms of the maze, the probability of its selecting either of the two arms of the maze is 50%. If you then remove that animal and immediately give it a second choice, you find that it tends to select the arm of the maze it did not enter on the first trial. This tendency to choose the previously unvisited alternative on the second trial has been referred to as ‘alternation behaviour.’ 

 

2          Murray Glanzer attributed ‘alternation behaviour’ to satiation. Satiation implies that the organism has had enough, that the stimulus is no longer a source of motivation, and that the organism has exhausted all the information of the stimulus. When we are talking about humans, we tend to use the word bored. According to Glanzer, the animal became satiated for the stimulus to which it had just been exposed (Glanzer, 1953). In his study, Glanzer demonstrated that if you changed the colour of the walls of the arm of the maze that the animal had visited on trial 1, the animal tended to repeat his response in the second trial to experience the new colour as it was satiated for the colour in the first trial. This also showed that satiation is not limited to responses. You could become satiated visually, auditorily, olfactorily and so forth. 

 

3          Children in particular like to seek out new and varied stimulation. For instance, if a child is presented with an object he has not previously encountered, and he is in a familiar and secure environment, he will tend to approach the object, visually inspect it, and then begin to interact with it by touching it, holding it, picking it up, tapping it, turning it over, and so on. After the child has thoroughly investigated the object, his interactions with it begin to diminish. When a person stops interacting with a novel object, we say that he or she has become satiated. However, since children and adults often return to objects previously abandoned, it appears that satiation dissipates with time. This is one of the important facts that need to be explained by a theory of curiosity and exploratory behaviours. When people abandon an object, it is usually because they have shifted their interest and attention to other objects, usually objects that are new or ones they have not encountered for a while. Thus, humans have a tendency to interact constantly with more and more of the environment.

 

4          Cognitive Component-The Concept of Complexity As the studies of the curiosity drive continued, it became very apparent not only that organisms tend to explore things that are novel or different, but that they are attracted to things that are complex. However, humans are not simply attracted to the most complex things in their environment. Studies by Robert Earl (1957) demonstrated the tendency of humans to respond to increasingly complex stimuli. Earl assumes that organisms are motivated to experience optimal complexity. He suggests that an organism becomes accustomed, or habituated, to a certain level of complexity (called an adaptation level) and is motivated to explore stimuli that are slightly more complex than this adaptation level. The theory predicts that individuals will always select slightly more complex stimuli (given that they have had time to adapt to a given level of complexity), and that, over time, individuals will come to prefer more and more complex stimulation.

 

5          Berlyne’s Theory D.E. Berlyne’s theory of exploration is based on the assumption that exploration and play are directed toward the processing of information. Through this processing of information, the individual becomes knowledgeable about his environment. Berlyne also suggested that the basic mechanism underlying exploratory and play behaviours is level of arousal. His theory assumes that arousal comes from interacting with external stimulation or by exercising internal processes, such as imagining, fantasizing, and thinking. Berlyne identified those characteristics of stimulation that could produce arousal. The characteristics of stimulation he associates with arousal are novelty, degree of change, suddenness of change, surprisingness, conflict, complexity, and uncertainty. He theorized that, upon encountering a new stimulus, the person compares the stimulus with some “standard” stimulus represented in memory. In other words, he or she compares its essential features such as its degree of complexity, novelty etc. with those of the standard. If the stimulus departs in some way from other stimuli represented in memory, it should elicit arousal.

 

6          When a person encounters a new stimulus that departs in some way from the standard, it is assumed that the discrepancy will elicit arousal. The greater the discrepancy is, the greater the arousal. Berlyne proposed that humans prefer moderate levels of arousal. Since moderate arousal is pleasurable, the person will, according to the theory, try to maintain contact with the stimulus. Berlyne argued that either very simple stimulation or very complex stimulation produces low effect, and that high complexity or novelty can even lead to negative effect. For instance, a stimulus could be too complex for the individual, and, therefore, it will evoke too much arousal and thus become aversive. Rather than explore such a stimulus, the theory predicts, the individual would tend to terminate contact with the stimulus in order to avoid or reduce displeasure. This is due to the fact that certain stimuli may exceed the individual’s ability to abstract the information they contain. Therefore, until the individual has developed the appropriate structures (presumably as a result of interacting with stimuli that can be processed), there is no point in interacting with such stimuli. In short, it would be a waste of the individual’s time.

 

7          In one experiment designed to determine the effects of level of arousal on exploratory behaviour, Franken and Strain (1974) used a large multi-unit maze that permitted certain sections to be changed from white to black, or from black to white, between the two daily trials. If exploratory behavior is motivated by the tendency to seek out new stimulation, animals high in that tendency should select and respond to the changed parts of the maze. To observe the effects of different levels of arousal on this tendency, half of the animals (rats) were injected with an arousal-producing drug between the two daily trials, and the other half were injected with saline solution (salty distilled water). The results indicated that the animals injected with saline solution entered somewhat more sections even when the sections were not changed, but, when they were changed, the animals entered many more of them. The results for the animals injected with the arousal-producing drug were almost opposite to those of the saline-injected animals. When the sections were changed, the animals tended to avoid them. These results clearly show that arousal does mediate the tendency to respond to new stimulation.

 

8          Arousal and Esthetics It has been suggested that esthetics can, in part, be understood within Berlyne’s conceptual framework. The work of Dorfman and Smith (1965) illustrates how it can account for some esthetic preferences.

 

9          According to Berlyne’s theory, when a person is exposed to a stimulus, he or she is likely to process the information it contains. As a result, his or her liking for that stimulus should decrease. A simple stimulus contains less new information than a complex stimulus, and, therefore, it should take less time to process all the information a simple stimulus contains. It follows that interest in a simple stimulus should diminish more rapidly with repeated exposures than interest in a complex stimulus.  Berlyne has also suggested that although people tend to avoid highly complex stimuli, when a person is repeatedly exposed to a highly complex stimulus, he develops the structures necessary to process the information it contains. Drawing on Berlyne’s theory, Smith and Dorfman (1975) carried out a study in which they measured liking for visual stimuli as a function of complexity and number of exposures.  Smith and Dorfman predicted that interest in a highly complex stimulus might increase rather than decrease with repeated exposures. This prediction was confirmed. A highly complex stimulus elicited little interest from the participants when viewed for the first time. However, with each additional exposure, subjects showed greater interest in highly complex stimuli. They also found that a stimulus of medium complexity initially elicited very little interest or liking. With repeated exposure, liking grew and then declined. Presumably, after 20 exposures the subjects had processed the information in the medium-complexity stimulus but still had not exhausted the information in the high-complexity stimulus; therefore, their interest in the stimulus continued.

 

10        Extrinsic Rewards: The Enemy of Exploration In an article titled “Enemies of Exploration: Self-Initiated versus Other-Initiated Learning,” John Condry (1977) concludes that, in certain contexts, extrinsic rewards (rewards originating from the outside) undermine not only performance but interest in the activity. Why do extrinsic rewards undermine performance and interest? To answer this question, it is important to look briefly at some of the research on this problem.

 

11        An obvious extrinsic reward is money. In a series of studies to examine whether money would increase or decrease subsequent interest in a task, Edward L. Deci (1972) used a game called SOMA. This game includes a number of locks that can be arranged into different patterns. Participants in the study were divided into three groups and asked to play the game. The first group was offered a social reward (praise) for every configuration they produced. The second group received a monetary reward. In this group, half of the subjects were informed about the monetary reward at the start. The others were not informed and received it unexpectedly. The third group received nothing. In the middle of each of the three experimental sessions, the experimenter left the room, and the subjects were viewed without their knowledge to determine whether they continued to play the game. The degree of interest in the game during these “free sessions” was used as a measure of intrinsic motivation. If the subjects continued to play the game after the experimenter left the room, they were considered to be intrinsically motivated. Deci found that those who were given verbal praise did not lose their interest in the game and continued to play even after the experimenter left the room. The results for the second group were interesting. The experimenters found that only those subjects who were informed of the reward at the start had less intrinsic motivation. It was not getting the reward itself that decreased intrinsic motivation, but it was the promise of a reward that altered the person’s approach to the task. For example, if a subject unexpectedly received a reward, it did not affect his or her performance.

 

12        Sensation Seeking The work on exploratory behaviour has typically suggested that an organism tends to avoid seeking new experiences when it involves risks because risks often arouse fear, which, in turn, produces high levels of arousal and hinders exploratory behaviour. It is interesting, therefore, that Zuckerman has been able to identify people who seek high sensation and, therefore, are willing to take risks (experience fear) in order to explore. Sensation seeking, according to Marvin Zuckerman (1979), “is a trait defined by the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences.” 

 

13        Among Zuckerman’s findings on sensation-seeking are sex differences (men tend to be higher in this trait than women), and the tendency for sensation seeking to diminish with age. Yet, the most interesting of them is that high sensation seekers are attracted to restricted environmental stimulation. This is not what anyone would expect. Normally we think that people who prefer change and novelty would prefer more rather than less stimulation. The reason the high sensation seekers said they enjoyed restricted environmental stimulation was that it provided them with a new experience. Under restricted environmental stimulation, becoming aware of bodily functions –the heart beating, the blood rushing through the arteries, food being digested, and so forth- was easier. To the sensation seekers, this was novel experience. Together with the idea that these people are willing to take risks in order to have novel experiences, we have two of the basic keys to this personality type.

 

14        Numerous studies have been carried out to discover the origins of the sensation seeking trait. It has been shown that sensation seeking is negatively correlated with monoamine oxidase levels (Zuckerman, 1979). That is, the level of monoamine oxidase is low in high sensation seekers and high in low sensation seekers. Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that determines the activation of the “reward centers” of the brain. Sensation seekers are hypothesized to use such drugs as cocaine. One reason for this hypothesis is that the effects of these drugs may depend on the activation of these reward centers. If your reward centers can be activated to a high degree, then it should be possible for you to experience greater pleasure or greater reward as the result of using drugs. In other words, it is suggested that high sensation seekers receive more reward value when they use certain drugs, and are therefore more prone to use drugs in the future. Conversely, low sensation seekers are thought to be experiencing low level of reward value when they use those drugs and are therefore less likely to use drug in the future.

 

15        Studies related to monoamine oxidase in high and low sensation seekers urged researchers to focus on the origins of the differences in the monoamine oxidase level. Drawing on a number of twin studies, Zuckerman has argued that they are inherited. Frank Farley (1986) has pointed out, however, that sensation seeking has also been linked to testosterone level. Whatever the exact mechanism, he also endorses the hypothesis that sensation seeking is inherited.

 

 

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ANSWERS

 

 

1. satiation dissipates with time

 

2. c

 

3. the arousal producing drug

 

4. the structure necessary to process the information (it contains)

 

5. the promise of a reward

 

6. high / low

 

7. the animal

 

8. Berlyne’s conceptual framework

 

*********************************************************************

TEST OF WRITING

 

 

 

W                       

                                                                                    Write your initials.

 

 

Seat Number  :__________                                       Last: ________________

Date                :__________                                       First: ________________

 

 

 

 

                                                                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOĞAZİÇİ UNIVERSITY

 

SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

 

 

Test of Writing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Instructions:

 

1.         Do not open this booklet until you are told to do so.

2.         You will have to write 2 essays in English.

            Try to show that your written English is good enough for university study.

(Do not, for example, use only very short, simple sentences.)

3.         Write neatly in ink.

4.         The test lasts 1 hour 20 minutes.  You are advised to spend 40 minutes on each  

            essay.

5.         This booklet consists of 4 pages.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

TASK 1

 

On the opposite page, write an essay discussing the negative effects of globalization.

 

The following points are given as guidelines. You may use these or any other points you wish to use.

 

 

-         inequality within and between nations

-         unemployment and low living standards

-         disappearance of cultural diversity

-         effects on nature

     

 

You have 40 minutes. Write about ONE page.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DO NOT WRITE HERE!

USE THIS SPACE ONLY FOR NOTES.

 

 


TASK 2

 

Turkey should become a member of the European Union.

 

On the opposite page, write an essay arguing for or against the above statement.

 

The following points are given as guidelines. You may use these or any other points you wish to use.

 

For

 

·        increase in exports

·        new investments from Europe

·        increase in quality due to competition        

 

Against

 

·        some industries unable to compete with EU products

·        increase in the prices of goods

·        increase in the rate of inflation

 

 

  

You have 40 minutes. Write about ONE page.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DO NOT WRITE HERE!

USE THIS SPACE ONLY FOR NOTES.